Human Cadaver Dissection: Week 2

Day 1: Fat trimming and isolation of the structures/ vessels around the female cadaver’s right foot/ ankle (malleoli). We identified the structures that run through the tarsal tunnel. Very tedious work.

Tarsal Tunnel – named for location anterior to posterior – from toward the toes back towards the heel: Tom, Dick, ANd Harry. T = Tibialis posterior D = Flexor Digitorum Longus A = Posterior Tibial Artery N = Tibial Nerve H = Flexor Hallicus Longus

Day 2: More fat trimming and cleaning up structures in the plantar surf of the right foot. Also very tedious work.

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Then things got real exciting when we opened up the chest cavity – cut through the ribs then our instructor broke out a hammer and chisel and broke through the clavicle to lift up the rib cage then removed the heart and lungs. We trimmed the fat tissue away and cleaned out the dried blood from the cut away vessels of the heart and lungs. Located necessary vessels in the chest cavity.

Day 3: Today we opened up the abdominal cavity and took out some of the guts.

We went over the structures in the chest cavity.

Reviewed the structures for the second exam.

Muscles:

Lower Body –

  1. Tensor fascia latae
  2. IT band
  3. Sartorius M
  4. Rectus femoris M
  5. Vastus lateralis M
  6. Vastus medialis M
  7. Vastus intermedius M
  8. Adductor longus M
  9. Adductor magnus M
  10. Gracilis M
  11. Gluteus maximus M
  12. Gluteus medius M
  13. Gluteus minimus M
  14. Piriformis M
  15. Superior gemellus M
  16. Obturator internus M
  17. Inferior gemellus M
  18. Quadratus femoris M
  19. Biceps femoris M
  20. Semitendinosis M
  21. Semimembranosus M
  22. Sacrotuberous ligament
  23. Popliteus M
  24. Gastrocnemius M
  25. Soleus M
  26. Plantaris M
  27. Tibialis anterior
  28. Extensor hallucis longus
  29. Extensor digitorum longus
  30. Fibularis longus
  31. Fibularis brevis
  32. *Tibialis posterior
  33. *Flexor hallucis longus
  34. *Flexor digitorum longus
  35. Plantar aponeurosis (sole of foot)

Upper Body –

  1. Latissimus dorsi M
  2. Deltoid M
  3. Pectoralis major M
  4. Pectoralis minor M
  5. Biceps brachii M
  6. Coracobrachialis M
  7. Triceps M
  8. Brachialis M
  9. Brachioradialis (use as landmark)

Forearm Extensors (12):

Level Muscle E/I
superficial brachioradialis I
superficial extensor carpi radialis longus E
superficial extensor carpi radialis brevis E
superficial extensor carpi ulnaris E
superficial anconeus I
intermediate extensor digitorum E
intermediate extensor digiti minimi E
deep abductor pollicis longus E
deep extensor pollicis longus E
deep extensor pollicis brevis E
deep extensor indicis E
deep supinator I

Forearm Flexors (8):

Level Muscle Extrinsic/Intrinsic Nerve
superficial flexor carpi radialis extrinsic median
superficial palmaris longus extrinsic median
superficial flexor carpi ulnaris extrinsic ulnar
superficial pronator teres intrinsic median
superficial (or intermediate) flexor digitorum superficialis extrinsic median
deep flexor digitorum profundus extrinsic ulnar + median (as anterior interosseous nerve)
deep flexor pollicis longus extrinsic median (as anterior interosseous nerve)
deep pronator quadratus intrinsic median (as anterior interosseous nerve)
  1. First dorsal interossei (b/w index & thumb)
  2. Flexor retinaculum
  3. Extensor retinaculum
  4. External intercostal muscle (hands in pockets)
  5. Internal intercostal muscle (opp direction)
  6. Innermost intercostal muscle (inside rib cage)
  7. Serratus anterior muscle (boxer muscle)
  8. Diaphragm
  9. Main Bronchus (trachea)
  10. Visceral pleura
  11. Parietal pleura
  12. External oblique M (hands in pockets)
  13. Internal oblique M (opp direction)
  14. Transversus abdominus M
  15. Rectus abdominus M

Vascular (Arteries and Veins):

  1. Femoral A
  2. Femoral V
  3. Great saphenous V
  4. Small saphenous V
  5. Superior gluteal A
  6. Superior gluteal V
  7. Inferior gluteal A
  8. Inferior gluteal V
  9. Popliteal A
  10. Popliteal V
  11. Anterior tibial A
  12. Posterior tibial A
  13. Dorsalis pedis A
  14. Brachial A
  15. Radial A (b/w brachioradialus & flexor carpi radialus)
  16. Ulnar A
  17. Intercostal A
  18. Intercostal V
  19. Aorta
  20. Internal thoracic A
  21. Internal thoracic V
  22. Superior vena cava (SVC)
  23. Inferior vena cava (IVC)
  24. Inferior epigastric A
  25. Inferior epigastric V

Nerves:

  1. Femoral N
  2. Saphenous N
  3. Obturator N
  4. Superior gluteal N
  5. Inferior gluteal N
  6. Sciatic N
  7. Sural N
  8. Common Fibular N
  9. Superficial Fibular N
  10. Deep Fibular N
  11. Tibial N
  12. Accessory N (Cranial N 11)
  13. Long thoracic N
  14. Lateral pectoral N
  15. Medial pectoral N
  16. Musculocutaneous N
  17. Median N
  18. Ulnar N (white in color)
  19. Radial N (all of posterior arm and forearm, laterally along radial side)
  20. Intercostal N
  21. Phrenic N (left and right)

Lungs:

  1. Left – one oblique fissure, lingula
  2. Right – one oblique fissure, one transverse (horizontal) fissure
  3. Both – main bronchus, Pulmonary A, Pulmonary V (closet to base), visceral pleura

Heart:

  1. Aorta
  2. Pulmonary trunk (Artery)
  3. Pulmonary V
  4. Superior vena cava
  5. Inferior vena cava
  6. Right auricle
  7. Left auricle
  8. Right coronary A (come from aorta – anterior)
  9. Left coronary A (come from aorta)

Day 4: Review day and Exam 2 got an A-. I mixed up a couple structures where I thought the pins were pointing to same structure (mostly in the lung and heart). Everything looks so similar in a cadaver!

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